Research over many years has highlighted two main areas of concern with regard to the use of rodenticides and wildlife.
The RAPTOR Protocol involving three government agencies (the National Parks and Wildlife Service, the Regional Veterinary Laboratories of the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, and the State Laboratory) was developed for the investigation of injuries and mortalities in birds of prey.
In the UK, one of the monitoring schemes in place is the Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme (WIIS) run by the Chemicals Regulation Directorate (CRD) and Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA).
Another concern is that many species of wildlife carry low-level residues of some of the commonly-used rodenticides in their bodies. Research has shown that these residues occur in a high proportion of individuals of some wildlife species, such as barn owls, red kites, buzzards and kestrels. It is not known whether these low-level or sub-lethal residues have any adverse effects, either on the individual animals that carry them or on wildlife populations as a whole. However, those who use rodenticides should do so in ways that seek to reduce to a minimum any exposure of wildlife and other non-target animals.